Phytopharmacology of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) Part 5

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) Part 5

Some Testimonials from Modern Research

Almost all species of the genus Ocimum show similar pharmacological activities. Therefore various groups of researchers used different species to evaluate the pharmacological actions of Tulsi-Basil. Hence I have honored the evaluation of the species mentioned in the original research paper.

General pharmacology

A study was carried out on cockerels (roosters) to evaluate the effect of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) on lead-induced alteration in disposition kinetics of sulphadimidine. The result showed that administration of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) altered the kinetics in cockerels (roosters). [171]

Skin creams or medicated ointments containing 6% Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) oil show2.40 times higher skin penetration. This shows that Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) oil is penetration enhancer. Histopathological studies revealed some disruption in the epidermis without any toxic effect on the dermis of the skin by penetration enhancer activity of -Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) oil. Penetration enhancer activity of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum tenuiflorum) oil can also be useful for combination with gastric irritant drugs like non steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, celecoxib and ibuprofen. The combination can reduce the dose and frequency of administration of these agents. [172]   

Anti-inflammatory activity

 In a study 200 mg or 400 mg/kg body weight of Ocimum sanctum a strong anti-inflammatory activity which was comparable to 25 mg /kg body weight of indomethacin. Reduction in carrageenan-induced paw edema by Ocimum sanctum was more than that by indomethacin. The anti-inflammatory activity of Ocimum sanctum is due to inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase and lipo-oxigenase pathways of arachidonic acid metabolism (dual inhibitory property) [173] 

Another group of researchers studied anti-inflammatory activity of Tulsi-Basil by using the species Osimum labiatum. They isolated labdane diterpenoid from the extract of Osimum labiatum. They found that labdane diterpenoid from this species to be an immune-enhancer. [174]

The aqueous extract of leaf of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) displayed a potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in Wister albino rats weighing 150 to 200 grams and in albino mice weighing 25 to 30 grams. The effects were similar to those of aspirin and celecoxib.

In cotton pellet induced granuloma, percentage inhibition by Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) aspirin and celecoxib were 23.85%, 45.84% and 42.77% respectively. In acetic acid induced writhing method, percentage protection by Ocimum sanctum, aspirin and celecoxib were 50.2%, 71.4% and 66.5% respectively. [175]

In an experimental study in rats, a methanol extract and aqueous suspension of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) inhibited acute as well as chronic inflammation. The anti-inflammatory property also imparts analgesic property. The anti-inflammatory response of 500 mg/kg body weight of each of the preparation was comparable to 300 mg/kg body weight of sodium salicylate.  

Both preparations reduced typhoid-paratyphoid A/B vaccine-induced pyrexia. The antipyretic activity of these preparations was weaker and of shorter duration than that of 300 mg/kg body weight of sodium salicylate.

In a study in rats, oral administration of these preparations delayed castor oil-induced diarrhea. [176]

Antioxidant activity

Antioxidant property of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) was known to clinicians and pharmacologists for centuries. A recent study showed that Krishna Tulsi and Thai holy basil having higher phenolic content display better antioxidant property than other eight species analyzed.  [177]

Many phytochemicals isolated from Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) displayed antioxidant cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity. [178]

Immunomodulatory activity

To evaluate the immunomodulatory effect, aqueous extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) was administered to Wister rats at doses of 100, 200 mg/kg body weight for 45 days. It enhanced the production of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC) and hemoglobin (Hb). The results suggested that the aqueous extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) showed immunomodulatory effect in rat. [179]

To investigate the effect of Ocimum sanctum on Th1/Th2 cytokine production by spleen-cells of myelosuppressed mice, female Swiss albino mice were challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Treatment with Ocimum sanctum showed significant increase in bone marrow cellularity, total white blood cell (WBC) count and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. In addition there was a significant increase in sheep red blood cells (SRBC) antibody titer. Ocimum sanctum significantly increased the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN- γ) and decreased the production of interleukin-1β (IL-1 β) and nuclear factor-κB (NF- κB). The methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum showed free radical scavenging activity. These results suggest that Ocimum sanctum can control infections, help wound healing, improve nutritional anemia and support anti-cancer drugs. [180]

Another study showed immunomodulatory effects of Ocimum sanctum on cyclophosphamide-induced immunosupression in rats. [181]

By using Salmonella typhosa and sheep erythrocytes antigenic challenge the immunomodulatory profile of aqueous suspension and methanol extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) was evaluated in albino rats. The study showed that both the preparations displayed immunomodulatory effect. [182]

In a double-blinded randomized controlled trial on healthy volunteers, a group of researchers found immunomudulatory effects of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract. [183]

Antiallergic activity

Wheat proteins are allergens. They can be used to induce allergy. In experimental study Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) extract cured allergy induced by wheat protein as there were no allergic bands found after treatment with Ocimum sanctum. [184]

 Antimicrobial activity                

A project was launched to examine antibacterial properties of essential oils distilled from Australian-grown Tulsi-Basil Ocimum tenuiflorum. The study showed that the oils at concentrations of 2.25% and 4.5% completely inhibited the growth all strains of Staphylococcus aureus including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli however the same concentrations only partially inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeroginosa. [185]   

The ethanolic extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf showed antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogenic micro-organisms such as Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. [186]

Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans is a periodontal pathogen in human dental plaque. Various concentrations of the extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) displayed antimicrobial activity against this pathogen. The maximum antibacterial activity was observed at the 6% concentration. [187]

Ethanolic, Hexane and Chloroform extracts of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves obtained by cold extraction process were found to control pneumonia by their antibacterial activity against Klebsiella pneumonia and Staphylococcus aureus. [188]

In a study Ethanol, Methanol, Propanol, Chloroform, Iso-amyl alcohol and Petroleum ether extracts of Ocimum sanctum purple, Ocimum sanctum green, Ocimum gratissium, Ocimum basillicum and Camphor basil species of Tulsi-Basil were evaluated for antibacterial activity. The extracts containing essential oils of these Ocimum species inhibited the growth of Streptococcus pneumonia, Proteus species, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella typhi and Bacillus subtilis. The study suggests that these species can be used as drugs against the bacterial infections caused by these organisms. (189)

Antiviral activity

Crude extract of leaves of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) has been shown to possess antiviral activity against H9N2 virus (190)

In another study extract of leaf of Sweet Basil Ocimum basilicum (OB) showed antiviral activity against DNA viruses: Herpes viruses (HSV), adenoviruses (ADV) and Hepatitis B virus and RNA viruses Coxsackie virus B1 (CVB1) and Enterovirus 71 (EV71) (191)

Antifungal activity

At a concentration of 40% the aqueous extract of leaf of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) showed antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger, Rhizopous and Cladpsporium while concentration of 30% showed antifungal activity against Curvularia lunata. Percentage of inhibition increases with increasing concentration. (192)

Satish Sharma et al demonstrated fungitoxicity of extracts of leaf of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum). All the four forms, i.e. 10% crude, 10% powdered, 10% boiled and 1% alcohol extracts of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf significantly inhibited the growth of Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizoctonia bataticola, Phoma sorghina, Collectotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pallidoroseum, Fusarium  oxysporum f.sp.ciceri, Sclerotium rolfsii, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Alternaria solani and  Alternaria alternate. (193)

Antiparasitic activity

A recent study showed that Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) displayed anti-protozoal activity against Leishmania species. (194)

In another study, Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) has been shown to possess antimalarial activity against Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. (195)

Actions on the skin

Rich in antioxidants Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) is useful for beautification of skin. Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) is useful for the treatment of skin infections especially acne. 

Actions on wound healing
Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) accelerate wound healing.

Actions on Musculoskeletal System

In patients suffering from gouty arthritis, extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) reduced the raised levels of serum uric acid in both males and females. (196)

Radioprotective activity

The flavonoids orientin and vicenin found in leaves of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) showed radioprotective effect. This effect was better than the effect of synthetic radioprotectors. They have shown significant protection to the human lymphocytes against the clastogenic effect of radiation at low, non toxic concentrations. The bone marrow cell protection was even better when Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract was combined with WR-2721, a synthetic radioprotector. The combination of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract reduced the toxicity of higher doses of WR-2721. (197), (198) 
Aqueous or hydroalcoholic extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf administered as a single dose or multiple doses before exposure to 11 Gy of 60Co gamma radiation protected the albino mice from adverse effects of radiation. (199) 
Chemopreventive activity:

In a study in mice, Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract showed chemoprotective effect probably through the induction of hepatic/extrahepatic glutathione. The conjecture was supported reduction of elevated levels of GSH in liver, lung and stomach. (200)

The chemoprotective effect was also shown by seed oil of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum). This was attributed to antioxidant activity of seed oil. (201)

Actions on Mouth

Chewing Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves can prevent and treat coating of tongue. (202)
Carvacrol and terpenes present in Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves are effective in treating common oral infections. When chewed, Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves maintain oral hygiene by containing the growth of oral pathogens. This activity also helps prevent foul smell of breath. The extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves is used in commercial mouth wash formulations. The extract is also useful for the treatment of mouth ulcers and gum diseases. Due to its properties chewing of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves is useful for the treatment of some dental diseases.  
Actions on the Breast
In an experimental study the aqueous extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves inhibited chemotaxis of breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-231 and endothelial cell line HUVEC towards specific chemo-attractants. By inhibiting angiogenesis and tumerogenesity the aqueous extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves acts against the development of breast cancer. (203)
In a study immunotherapeutic potential of crude water extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf in bovine sub-clinical mastitis was investigated after intramammary infusion of the extract. The results revealed that the extract reduced the total bacterial count, increased neutrophil and lymphocyte counts with enhanced phagocytic activity and phagocytic index. The lysosomal enzymes contents of the milk polymorphoneuclear cells were also enhanced significantly. This suggested that water extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf can be used to treat bovine subclinical mastitis. (204)
Actions on Hematopoetic system

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of extracts of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves protect bone marrow cells from radiation injury and ill effects of chemotherapeutic agents. [205]

A study showed that orientin a flavone found in Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) stimulates megakaryopoesis. Dietary supplement of orientin also prevents thrombocytopenia. [206]

Actions on Nervous system

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) was found to be effective in the management of viral encephalitis. (207)

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) has been documented to possess neuroprotective, cognition-enhancing and stress relieving effects in animal models. In healthy adult human volunteers administration of 300 mg capsules of ethanolic extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf per day, over 30 days enhanced specific cognitive parameters (208)

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) was found to be effective in the management of stress. Its antistress activity was said to be due to the inhibition of cortisol release. It is possible that Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) exhibits anti-stress activity by its effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. (209)

Rats were subjected to Weight-Loaded Forced Swim Test (WFST) every alternate day for 2 weeks. Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) was administered every day at doses of 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg body weight per animal. Levels of lactic acid and parameters of other biochemicals were lower in animals treated with Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum). This suggested that Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) shows anti-fatigue activity. Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) at the dose of 300 mg/kg showed better performance against fatigue. (210)

The extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf affords significant protection against stress (adaptogenic activity). Even healthy individuals can chew 12 leaves of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) twice a day to prevent stress (211)

Hydroalcoholic extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bodyweight was effective for controlling seizures. Combination of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) extract with valproate showed better memory retention potential and protection against oxidative stress. (212)

In a study Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) extract displayed anticonvulsant and anxiolytic properties. Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) significantly attenuated generalized anxiety disorders and also correlated stress and depression. (213)

Actions on CVS

In a study on rats, cadmium chloride was injected subcutaneously on alternate day for ten days to induce oxidative stress on heart. Cardiac damage was evaluated by studying various enzymes. The rats were then treated with oral administration of aqueous extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum L) leaf. The effect of the treatment was assessed by biochemistry and histology. The results revealed that the extract protected the animals against the oxidative damage. This suggests that Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum L) extract can be used to prevent oxidative stress-induced tissue damages in workers exposed to cadmium in their occupation or in humans exposed to environmental cadmium. (214)

To evaluate effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum L) leaf, male Wistar rats were subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS) 6 hours a day for 21 days. The animals were subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS) alone or along with oral administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of hydroalcoholic extract Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum L). In rats subjected to only chronic restraint stress (CRS), plasma cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was significantly raised on day 21 with no significant change in plasma cortisone level; there was significant fall in myocardial glutathione level and rise in myocardial superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities. Histopathological study showed myocardial edema. Animals receiving Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum L) extract were protected from myocardial damage. (215)   

Oxidative stress and inflammation play a vital role in the development of myocardial infarction. Methanolic extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum L) leaves decreased inflammation in isoproterenol (ISP) induced myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Histopathological findings confirmed these findings. (216)

That carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is hepatotoxic and induces liver cirrhosis was known but associated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis were ignored. A group of researchers with the help of biochemical markers and histopathological study proved that carbon tetrachloride is cardiotxic and induces cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Further research showed that Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum L) extract attenuated carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced cardiac toxicity. (217)

The effect of extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum L) leaf on blood pressure is conflicting and controversial----

When administered to hypotensive women, the extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum L) leaf raised both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The rise in blood pressure was not very high but was minimal. (218)

Researchers from Bangladesh and other countries of the world found that water soluble fraction of methanol extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves was useful to lower high blood pressure. Some researchers found that Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) lowers blood pressure even in normotensive subjects. (219) 
Actions on RS

Fifty percent hydroalcoholic extract of dried and fresh leaves of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) showed strong antihistaminic activity. Fixed oil extracted from seeds of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) protected guinea pigs against histamine and acetylcholine induced bronchospasm. These extracts are thus useful for the treatment of respiratory diseases involving bronchospasm especially bronchial asthma. (220)

In experimental study ovalbumin is used to induce inflammatory lung disease. By using ovalbumin bronchial asthma was induced in BALB/C mice. The animals were then treated with dried and fractionated ethanol extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum). The extract inhibited leukotriene-C4-synthase, leukotriene-A4-hydrolase and cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) activities in cultured HL-60 cells. (221)         

Actions on GI System

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) extract exert anti-secretory effect on gastric mucosa. This is also beneficial for healing gastric ulcer. These beneficial effects are mainly due to the active constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, β-caryophyllene and rosmarinic acid in Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) extract. (222)

Actions on Liver

Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiviral and hepatoprotective properties of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) are useful in the management of viral hepatitis. (223)

In liver, essential oils in Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) extract prevent oxidative stress by increasing glutathione peroxidase and catalase. This antioxidant property prevents hepatic steatosos. The hepatoprotective activity of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) extract is due to its constituents like eugenol, carvacrol, ursolic acid, β-caryophyllene and roamarinic acid. These chemicals are also anti-inflammatory that protect hepatic damage. (224) 

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract was found to protect liver of rats from hepatotoxic effect of paracetamol as evidenced by significant reduction in the elevated levels of serum enzymes. Histopathological studies showed marked reduction in fatty degeneration in animals receiving Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract. (225)

Actions on metabolism

Oral administration of 500 mg/kg body weight per experimental animal (rat) of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract for 15 days resulted in decrease in blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin, lipid peroxide, free fatty acids, low density lipoprotein and plasma lipoproteins. (226)

Administration of 1 to 2 percent fresh leaves of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) in diet of normal rabbits for four weeks brought about significant change in the lipid profile of the animals. This resulted in significant reduction in serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and phospholipid levels. Additionally there was significant increase in serum HDL-cholesterol and total faecal sterol contents. (227) 

Administration of 250mg capsule of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) extract twice a day on empty stomach for 8 weeks to obese, overweight subjects significantly lowered the serum levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoprotein, triglyceride and increased the serum level of high density lipoprotein. There was no significant alteration in the levels of liver enzymes SGOT/AST (Aspertate aminotransferase) and SGPT/ALT (Alanine aminotransferase) (228) 

Metabolic syndrome comprises of coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia/dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and obesity. Patients taking Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) extract 5 ml twice a day for three months showed improvement in biochemical parameters. This result was attributed to phytochemical eugenol found in the plant. (229)

Actions on Diabetes

Hexane extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) was administered for three weeks to streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Wistar rats. The extract lowered elevated blood sugar. The extract also lowered elevated levels of aspertate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotranse (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase MB subunit (CK-MB), creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). In addition, the antioxidative property of α-linolenic acid found in Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves protected various organs. In diabetics the serum levels of insulin are decreased. The extract increased the serum insulin levels and decreased the kidney weight. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) are formed as a byproduct of lipid peroxidation. They exert oxidative stress. They can be upregulated by heart attack or by stroke. Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) extract suppressed elevated thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and increased the activity of various antioxidative enzymes in the rat renal tissue. Histopathological studies showed that α-linolenic acid found in Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves preserved the renal tissue against oxidative stress in diabetic Wistar rats. (230) 

Pioglitazone is insulin sensitizer. Its use results in weight gain, peripheral edema, increase in incidence of heart failure and increase in the risk of bone fracture. In experimental study alloxan monohydrate at the dose of 160 mg/kg body weight per animal was used to induce diabetes in male Wistar rats. Administration of 300 μg/kg body weight of aqueous extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves to these rats produced a significant reduction in blood glucose levels from 345 mg/dL to 263 mg/dL. There were no adverse effects like those associated with pioglitazone. But the insulin sensitization activity was lesser than reference drug pipglitazone.  (231)

Oral administration of alcoholic extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves markedly lowered raised blood sugar in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Further the extract potentiated the action of exogenous insulin in normal rats. The extract showed better hypoglycemic activity than that of tolbutamide. (232)

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) was found to possess aldose reductase activity which may help in reducing the complications of diabetes such as cataract, retinopathy etc. (233)

Eugenol found in Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) was found to inhibit advanced glycation products (AGEs) in diabetics. Eugenol has dual mode of action in combating diabetes; by inhibiting α-glucosidase it lowers blood sugar and prevents AGE formation by binding to ε-amine group on lysine. (234)

A study showed that aqueous extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) could delay the development of insulin resistance in rats. Therefore the aqueous extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) can be used as an adjuvant therapy for treating diabetic patients with insulin resistance. (235)

Actions on Male Reproductive System

To evaluate the effects of fresh leaves of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) rabbits were fed 2 g of fresh leaves per rabbit for 30 days. The result showed that the sperm count significantly decreased. The blood levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) and serum testosterone decreased. Thus Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) exerts antifertility effects on male reproductive system. Thus Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves can be used as male contraceptive agent. (236)

Actions on Female Reproductive System

In another study, fresh Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves (1gm/kg body weight twice a week per rabbit) were administered to sexually mature female rabbits with proven fertility for one month. The results showed that the weight of uterus and ovary decreased. Histological changes were also observed. (237)

Antitumor activity

Forty one patients of submucous fibrosis were treated by local application of a mixture of 1gm of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) and 1 gm of turmeric (Curcuma longa) in glycerine base 3-4 times a day to the affected area. The patients were followed up every month. The result showed that the burning sensation reduced and mouth opening improved. (238) 

7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) is an immunosuppressor and a powerful organ-specific carcinogen. To evaluate the effect of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) on oral cancers, by using 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) oral papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma were induced in buccal mucosa pouch in Hamsters. Paste of fresh leaves, aqueous extract and ethanol extract of leaves of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) were applied to the lesions and extracts were administered orally. The results showed that the incidence of papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma were significantly reduced and the survival rate increased. Among them, the orally administered aqueous extract showed profound effect than the other two forms. Histopathological observations made on the mucosa confirmed these findings. (239) 

From times immortal, the sacred plant Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) has been beacon of therapeutic sources for curing many diseases. The aqueous extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves showed cytotoxic activity against KB cells (Mouth Epidermal Carcinoma Cells). The extract was effective as an antiproliferative agent which caused apoptosis in oral cancer cell line. (240)  

Oral treatment with alcoholic extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves at 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight for 15 days significantly elevated the levels of cytochrome P-450, cytochrome b5, aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase and glutathione S-transferase which prevented the development of liver, lung, stomach cancers in mice. (241)

In experimental study rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid, found in Tulsi- Basil (Ocimum sanctum) exhibited cytotoxicity against NCI-H82 (human small cell lung carcinoma) DU-145 (human prostate carcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate adenocarcinoma), Hep-3B (liver carcinoma), K-562 (human chronic myeloid leukemia), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), and MDA-MB-231 (human breast adenocarcinoma) (242)

In male Swiss albino mice the ethanolic extract of Tulsi- Basil (Ocimum sanctum) showed chemopreventive property. Topical application of the extract of Tulsi- Basil (Ocimum sanctum) for 15 days to skin papilloma reduced the number of papillima cells. (243) 

In mice, the extract of leaf of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) provides protection against skin cancers induced by 3-methylcholanthrene, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and Aflatoxin B1. This is attributed to the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves. (244)

To evaluate the effect of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) on melanoma in mice, 50% hydroalcoholic extract of various species of Tulsi-Basil was administered orally at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight per animal. This resulted in significant reduction in tumor volume, increase in bodyweight and survival rate of mice. The various extracts showed modulatory influence against gamma radiation induced chromosomal damage. Further, the extracts showed activity against B(16)F(10) metastatic melanoma cell line. (245)

Ethanol extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) exerts anti-metastatic activity through inactivation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and enhancement of antioxidant enzymes. (246)

In an experimental study the aqueous extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) inhibited angiogenesis and migration of breast cancer cells. The extract also prevented the migration of breast cancer cells i. e. development of metastases. (247)

By anti-inflammatory- antioxidant activity, altering the gene expressions, inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis and metastasis the aqueous extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) prevented chemical-induced skin, oral, lung and liver cancers. The study suggests that more research is necessary for prevention of tumerogenesis, chemopreventive and radioprotective properties of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) (248)

Osteosarcoma a type of bone cancer is rapidly progressing cancer. Eighty percent of this tumor will metastasize to lung and liver. To improve the possibility of survival, the patients need chemotherapy at the earliest. Recently antioxidant property of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) was found to control the aggressive growth of osteosarcoma.  (249)

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of the aqueous extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) were found to be useful as a single agent and in combination with docetaxel for the treatment of prostate cancer. Vicenin-2 induced anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic effect irrespective of androgen responsiveness of the cancer cells. (250)


Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves have an acrid taste. Hence the leaves must not be chewed, for chewing produces a burning sensation in the mouth. The leaves of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) are rich in iron which may stain your teeth if chewed. Hence the leaves should simply be gulped down.  

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves can adversely affect the health of pregnant woman and her embryo especially in the first trimester. The herb is rich in estradiol which may cause contractions of the uterus and can even lead to abortion. The leaves can affect the menstrual cycle of some women and cause diarrhea. 

The hypoglycemic activity of the leaves may not be good for diabetics if they are already taking medicines for diabetes. Intake of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves can enhance the hypoglycemia and cause blood sugar to fall too low. 

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) is a potent antifertility agent. It lowers sperm count, decreases the weight of testes, adrenal glands, prostate, uterus and ovary. Therefore Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) should not be consumed as a medicine for long duration both by males and females of reproductive age. Its antifertility effect is due to its ability to modulate reproductive hormones. Fortunately the antifertility effect is reversible in a month’s time after cessation of the intake.

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) may interfere with anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents. 

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) may cause damage to the liver. Persons who are on non steroidal anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents are at a greater risk of liver damage.

Traditional and Ayurvedic uses

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) is perhaps one of the best examples of Ayurveda’s holistic lifestyle approach to health. Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) attained a prime place in the medicinal chest of grandmothers.

Daily consumption of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) is said to prevent diseases, promote general health and longevity by reducing stress of daily life. The author feels, because of its antifertility activity, Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) must not be consumed daily by persons of reproductive age group.
Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) is considered as an adaptogen par excellence especially when combined with turmeric (Curcuma longa), yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and aardraka-ginger (Zingiber officinale).

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) is credited with giving luster to complexion, fostering beauty, giving sweetness to voice, increasing intelligence and a calm emotional disposition and improving stamina.

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) is recommended for the treatment of acute and chronic cold, sinusitis, otalgia, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis and bronchial asthma, some cardiac disorders, pyrexias, malaria, diarrhea, dysentery, dyspepsia, indigestion, hiccup, vomiting, arthritis, back ache, uro-genital disorders, skin disorders, mycotic infections, insect bites, snake and scorpion bites. (251)

Additional Information

Tulsi for skin care

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) can lighten dark spots and brighten the skin.
Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) cures acne and skin infections and skin allergies.

Tulsi for hair
Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) when consumed orally or applied topically, prevents hair fall and promotes hair growth. It is therefore used to treat alopecia areata, baldness.
Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) can stop graying of hair keep it thick and black
Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) can stop dandruff
Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) can prevent dry skin

Tulsi for eyes

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) sooths eyes
Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves left in boiled water overnight can be used to wash eyes.  
Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) can reduce eye strain and make it feel relaxed.
Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) can be useful for the treatment of conjunctivitis.

Tulsi for Weight Loss

Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) tea helps improve digestion, nutrition, and stamina
Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) tea lowers raised lipid levels and promotes weight loss.

Tulsi as Adaptogen

Vitamins in Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) are potent antioxidants and adaptogens; and prevent premature aging. Consuming two cups of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) tea can help you feel and look younger.  

Tulsi to quit smoking
Munching few Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves every time you get urge to smoke, can suppress the urge. Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves can help purify blood by getting nicotin off your body. (252)
Tulsi swaras: Fresh juice of leaves.
Tulsi Seeds: Steep (soak) dried seeds of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) in adequate quantity of water over night. They will swell with mucilage. Gulp them orally. The preparation acts as diuretic and relieves burning micturition. It has mild laxative effect.  
Tulsi tea: A tea can be made by brewing 2-3 teaspoons of dried Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves in boiling water, steeping for 5-6 minutes. Drinking it in the morning can boost immunity especially against respiratory disorders. Drinking it at bedtime has relaxation effect.
Tulsi Pill: Pills containing an alcohol extract of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves is available. The pill is convenient for oral use.
Tulsi Oil: Essential oil is extracted by distilling leaves and flowers of the plant.
Tulsi Leaves: The leaves are used in cooking as flavouring particularly in Asian dishes.      
Taking 300 to 500 mg of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaf extract twice a day for 30 days is safe.
In preliminary studies, taking 400 mg of Tulsi-Basil (Ocimum sanctum) leaves extract in the morning and 800 mg at night for six weeks decreased many symptoms associated with stress. (253)

171. A. Prakash et al, Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on Disposition Kinetics of Sulphadimidine in Lead-Treated Cockerel, Iranian Journal of Pharmacology & Therapeutics, January 2010, vol. 9, no. 1, 1-5   

172. Areeg A. Shamsher et al, Tulsi as a potential penetration enhancer for celecoxib transdermal gel formulations , Journal, Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, Volume 19, 2014- Issue 1

173. Mrutyunjay M. Mirje et al, Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn (Tulsi) in albino rats, Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci (2014) 3(1): 198-205 

174. Petrina Kapewangolo et al, Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Ocimum labiatum extract and isolated labdane diterpenoid, Journal of Inflammation Volume 12, Artivle number: 4 (2015), 20 January 2015

175. A. Umamageswari et al, Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Ocimum sanctum: a comparative study using animal models, International Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology, Vol 4, No 5 (2015)

176. Godhwani S et al, Ocimum sanctum: an experimental study evaluating its anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity in animals, J Ethnopharmacol, 1987 Nov, 21(2): 153-163 

177. Yixiao Shen et al, Comparison of phenolic profiles and antioxidant potentials of the leaves and seeds of Thai holy and sweet basils, International Journal of Food + Technology, 09 May 2015   

178. Kelm MA et al, Antioxidant and cyclooxigenase inhibitory phenolic compounds from Ocimum sanctum Linn, Phytomedicine 2000 Mar, 7(1):7-13

179. R. Caroline Jebal et al, Immunomodulatory activity of aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum in rat, International Journal on Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Research; Vol 2(1), 2011, 33-38

180. R. Hemalatha et al, Immunomodulatory Activity and Th1/Th2 Cytokine Response of Ocimum sanctum in Myelosuppressed Swiss Albino Mice, Trends in Medical Research, Volume 6 (1): 23-31, 2011

181. Arvind Tripathi, Immunomodulatory activity of Ocimum sanctum and its influence on cyclophosphamide induced immunosupression, The Indian Iournal of Animal Sciences, 78(1): 33-36, January 2008

182. Godhwani S et al, Ocimum sanctum—a preliminary study evaluating its immunoregulatory profile in albino rats, J Ethnopharmacol, 1988 Dec; 24(2-3): 193-8

183. Mondal S et al, Double-blinded randomized controlled trial for immunomodulatory effects of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) leaf extract on healthy volunteers, J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 July 14; 136(3): 452-6   

184. Shaista Khan et al, In vitro analysis of antiallergic activity of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi/Holy Basil) and Calotropis gigantean (AaK) for reduction of wheat allergenic proteins, Rawal Medical Journal 41(1): 100-103 Jan 2016
185. Hanna A. Yamani et al, Antimicrobial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum) Essential Oil and Their Major Constituents against Three Species of Bacteria, Frontiers in Microbiology 2016, 7: 681

186. Sajjanshetty Mallikarjun et al, Antimicrobial efficacy of Tulsi leaf (Ocimum sanctum) extract on periodontal pathogens: An in vitro study J Ind Soc Periodontology 2016 Mar-Apr 20 (2): 145-150   

187. Pranati Eswar et al, Anti-microbial Activity of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) Linn Extract on a Periodontal Pathogen in Human Dental Plaque: An Invitro study, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR; Mar 2016 10: 3, 7C 53-7C56

188. Rohit Mittal et al, Antimicrobial activity of Ocimum sanctum leaves extracts and oil, 15-11-2018 at

189. Prasad G et al, Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of some Ocimum spesies and clove oil, Fitoterapia, 1986; 57 (6): 429- 432

Ocimum sanctum Linn known as Holy  Basil  is an  aromatic

190. Ghoke SS et al, Evaluation of antiviral activity of Ocimum sanctum and Acacia arabica leaves extracts against H9N2 virus using embryonated chicken egg model, BMC Complement Altern Med 2018 Jun 5; 18 (1): 174

191. Lien-Chai Chiang et al, Antiviral activities of extracts and and selected constituents of Ocimum basilicum, Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 19 September 2005

192. S. P. Gupta et al, Antifungal activity of aqueous leaf extract of Ocimum sanctum on dominant fungal species of monuments, Eur. Chem. Bull, 2014, 2(6), 609-611  

193. Satish Sharma, Antifungal Activity of Leaf Extracts of Ocimum sanctum against Fungal pathogens, International Journal of Current Micobiology and Applied Sciences ISSN: 2319-7706 Volume 8 Number 04 (2019)

194. Gaurav Bhalla et al, Antileishmanial and Immunomodulatory potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn. and Cocosnucifera Linn. in murine visceral leishmaniasis, Journal of Parasitic diseases 2017 March 41 (1): 76-85

195. Lalit Mohan et al, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research Volume 7, Issue 1, March-April 2011; Article-009 Page 52.

196. Ahmed M et al, The effect of Ocimum sanctum and Ledum palustre on serum uric acid level in patients suffering from gouty arthritis and hyperuricaemia, Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia, 2013; 27(3):469-473 
197. Uma Devi P et al, Radiation protection by Ocimum sanctum flavonoids orientin and vicenin: Mechanism of action, Radiat Res 154(4): 2000, 455-360

198. Gonasoundari A et al, Enhancement of bone marrow radioprotection and reduction of WR-2721 toxicity by Ocimum sanctum, Mutat Res 397: 1998, 303

200. Prakash J Gupta et al, Antiproliferative and chemopreventive activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn. Int J Med Biol Environ 27: 1999, 165

201. Prakash J Gupta et al, Chemopreventive activity of Ocimum sanctum seed oil, J Ethnopharmacol 72 (1-2): 2000, 29-34

202. Gayatri Ramesh et al, Estimation of salivary and tounge coating pH on chewing household herbal leaves: A randomized controlled trial, Ancient Science of life, 2012 Oct-Dec 32 (2): 69-75
203. Pratima Nangia-Makkar et al, Inhibition of breast cancer progression by medicinal herb Ocimum sanctum, Novel and Molecular Therapeutics 17, April 2006
204. Mukherjee R et al, Immunotherapeutic potential of Ocimum sanctum (L) in in bovine subclinical mastitis, Research in Veterinary Science, 2005; 79(1):37-43
205. Marc Maurice Cohen, Tulsi-Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons, Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine, 2014, Oct-Dec 5(4): 251-259  

206. Marshleen Yadav, Ocimum flavones Orientin as a countermeasure for thrombocytopenia, Scientific reports, Volume 8, 22 March 2018, Article number 5075 

207. Das S et al, Ocimum sanctum (tulsi) in the treatment of viral encephalitis (A preliminary clinical trial) Antiseptic 1983: 80: 323-327   

208. Suneetha Sampath et al, Holi Basil (Ocimum sanctum Linn) Leaf Extract Enhances Specific Cognitive Parameters in Healthy Adult Volunteers: A Placebo Controlled Study, Indian J Physiol Pharmacol, Jan-Mar 2015; 59 (1): 69-77

209. Jothie Richard E et al, Anti-stress activity of Ocimum sanctum: possible effects on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Phytotherapy Research, 2016, 30 (5):805-814 

210. Venu Prasad M. P. Antifatigue activity of Ethanolic ethanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum in rats, Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 2012; 6(1): 37-46 

211. Lalit Mohan et al, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Review and Research Page 51, Volume 7, Issue 1, March-April 2011, Article- 009  

212. Sarangi SC et al, Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interaction of hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum sanctum with valproate, Epilepsy Behav 2017 Oct. 75: 203-209 

213. Bhattacharyya D et al, Controlled programmed trial of Ocimum sanctum leaf on generalized anxiety disorders, Nepal Medical College Journal, 2008; 10 (3): 176-179

214. Debosree Ghosh et al, Aqueous Tulsi Leaf (Ocimum sanctum) Extract Posseses Antioxidant Properties and Protects Against Cadmium-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Heart, Internal Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacological Sciences, January 2013

215. S. Sood et al, Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on cardiac changes in rats subjected to chronic restraint stress, J Ethnopharmacol 2006, Dec 6; 108 (3):423-427

216. Kavitha S et al, Amelioration of inflammation by phenolic rich methanolic extract of Ocimum sanctum Linn. leaves in isoproteronol induced myocardial infarction, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 01 Oct 2015, 53(10): 632-640

217. Chang H.-C. et al, Herbal supplement attenuation of cardiac fibrosis in rats with CCl4 –induced liver cirrhosis, Chinese Journal of Physiology, 2014, 57(1): 41-47 

218. Bhargava A. et al, To study the effect of holy basil leaves on low blood pressure (hypotension) women aged 18-30 years, International Conference on Food and Agricultural Sciences, 2013; 55(16): 83-86  

219. Borhanuddin M, Study of Antihypertensive effects of Ocimum sanctum, Bangladesh Journal of Medical Science Vol. 15 No. 03 Jlly ‘16   
220. Surender Singh et al, Anti-Asthmatic and Anti-Inflammatort Activity of Ocimum sanctum, International Journal of Pharmacognosy Volume 29, 1991-Issue 4

221. Soni K et al, Boswellia serrata and Ocimum sanctum extracts reduce inflammation in ova-induced asthma model of BALB/C mice, Planta Medica 2015;8(11)

222. Kamyab A. A. et al, Anti-inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application, Inflammation and Allergy- Drug Targets, 2013; 12(6): 378-384 

223. Rajalakshmi S et al, Role of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) in the management Manjal Kamalai (viral hepatitis), Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Siddha 1986; 9(3-4):118-123

224. Kamyab A. A. et al, Anti-inflammatory, gastrointestinal and hepatoprotective effects of Ocimum sanctum Linn: an ancient remedy with new application, Inflammation and Allergy- Drug Targets, 2013; 12(6): 378-384 

225. Chattopadhyay R. te al, Hepatoprotective activity of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract against paracetomol induced hepatic damage in rats, Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 1992; 24(3): p. 163.

226. Husain I et al, Antidyslipidemic effect of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 2015; 30(1): 72-77

227. Sarkar A et al, Changes in the blood lipid profile after administration of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves in the normal albino rabbits, Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 1994; 38(4):311-312

228. Satapathy S et al, Effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum linn.) supplementation on metabolic parameters and liver enzymes in young overweight and obese subjects; Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2016: 1-7

229. Devra D. K. et al, Effect of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on clinical and biochemical parameters of metabolic syndrome, Journal of Natural remedies, 2012; 12((1):63-67

230. Suanarunsawant T et al, Anti-diabetic and Anti-oxidative activity of fixed oil extracted from Ocimum sancyum L. leaves in diabetic rats, Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine, 2016; 11(3):832-840. 

231. Raja T et al, An evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn (leaves) in Wistar rats, The Pharma Innovation Journal 2016; 5(1):1-3

232. Chattopadhyay R. R. Hypoglycemic effect of Ocimum sanctum leaf extract in normal and streptozotocin diabetic rats, Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 1993; 31(11):891-893 

233. Srinivas N et al, Therapeutic aspects of Tulsi unraveled: A review, Year: 2016, Volume: 28, Issue: 1 Page: 17-23

234. Singh P et al, Potential dual role of eugenol in inhibiting advanced glycation end products in diabetes: proteomic and mechanistic insights, Scientific Reports 2016; 6   

235. Reddy S. S. et al, Prevention of insulin resistance by ingesting aqueous extract of Ocimum sanctum to fructose-fed rats, Hormone and Metabolic Research 2008; 40(1):44-49   

236. Jyoti Sethi et al, Effect of tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits, International Journal of Ayurveda research 2010; 1(4): 208-210

237. Effects of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) on the reproductive system, publication
238. Adit Srivastava et al, Clinical evaluation of the role of tulsi and turmeric in the management oral submucous fibrosis: A pilot, prospective observational stugy, J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2015 Jan-Mar; 691): 45-49

239. K Karthikeyan et al, Chemopreventive Effect of Ocimum Sanctum on DMBA-induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis, Oral Oncol 1999 Jan; 35(1): 112-9   

240. Prachi Shivpuje et al, Effect of ocimum Sanctum on Oral Cancer Cell Line: An in Vitro Study, J Contemp Dent Pract. 2015 Sep 1; 16(9): 709-14

241. Banerjee S et al, Modulatory influence of alcoholic extract Ocimum leaves on carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme activities and and reduced glutathione levels in mouse, Nutrition and Cancer, 1996; 25(2): 205-217  

242. Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas, Inhibitory Effects of Rosemary Extracts, Carnosic acid and Rosmarinic acid on the Growth of Various Human Cancer Cell lines, Plant Foods Hum Nutr 2010 Jun; 65(2):158-63  

243. R Prashar et al, Chemopreventive Action by an Extract From Ocimum sanctum on Mouse Skin Papillomagenesis and Its Enhancement of Skin Glutathione S-transferase Activity and Acid Soluble Sulfydryl Level, Anticancer Drugs 1994 Oct; 5(5):567-72

244. Shipra Rastogi et al, Protective effect of Ocimum sanctum on 3-methylcholanthrene, 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and Aflatoxin B1Induced Skin Tumerogenesis in Mice, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007 Nov 1, 224(3): 228-40 

245. Jitender Monga et al, Antimelanoma and Radioprotective Activity of Alcoholic Aqueous Extracts of Different Species of Ocimum in C(57)BL Mice. Pharm Biol. 2011 Apr; 49(4): 428- 36

246. Sun-Chae Kim et al, Ethanol Extract of Ocimum sanctum Exerts Anti-Metastatic activity Through Inactivation of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 and Enhancement of Anti-Oxidant Enzymes, Food Chem Toxicol, 2010 Jun; 48; (6): 1478-82  

247. Pratima Nangia-Makkeret al,  Inhibition of angiogenesis by a common herb: Ocimum sanctum, Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res. Volume 45, 2004

248. Manjeshwar Shrinath Baliga et al, Ocimum sanctum L. (Holi Basil or Tulsi) and its Phytochemicals in the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer, Nutr Cancer, 2013; 65 Suppl 1: 26-35

249. Lin C. C. et al, Novel target genes responsive to apoptotic activity by Ocimum gratissimum in human osteosarcoma cell, American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 2014; 42(3):743-767     

250. Lokesh Dalasanur Nagaprashantha et al, Anti-cancer effects of Novel Flavonoid vicenin-2 as a Single Agent and in Synergistic Combination With Docetaxel in Prostate cancer, Biochem Pharmacol 2011 Nov 1;82(9):1100-9  

 251. Marc Maurice Cohen, Tulsi-Ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons, J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2014, Oct-Dec; 5(4):251-259   

 252. Ashish Roy, Uses of Tulsi (Holi Basil): Benefits and Supplements, Med Life, November 14, 2018
253. Sherry Christiansen, An Anti-Aging Adaptogen That Protects the Heart and Brain, The Health Benefits of Holy Basil, Holistic Health, Herbal Medicine, March 28, 2020


Popular posts from this blog

Bhumyamalaki (Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus niruri)

AMALAKI (Phyllanthus emblica, Emblica officinalis)

Methee-Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L)