Pippali (Piper longum) Part 1

Pippali (Piper longum) Part 1

Introduction

Not only physicians trained in Ayurvedic system of medicine but also physicians practicing modern system of medicine are enthused to use Pippali (Piper longum). Dr. V. B. Athavale, a noted pediatrician of Mumbai, India used Pippali (Piper longum) a plenty to treat respiratory infections and bronchial asthma in children. He also used it to prevent bronchial asthma in children.

Pippali (Piper longum) ranked pari pasu as spice with black pepper on dining table. Although oblivious to day, Pippali (Piper longum) a renowned culinary spice and rejuvenating herb is worth learning about. Rarely though, it is still used as a spice in Indian and Nepalese pickles, some North African spice mixtures, Indonesian and Malaysian cooking, some National dishes of Pakistan and Lucknow. However 15th century onwards Pippali (Piper longum) made its transition from spice table to medicine-chest. [1] 
 
The earliest reference to Pippali (Piper longum) can be found in Vedic texts. The texts mention in details its health benefits and dietary effects. [2]

Among its many uses, its effects on digestive, respiratory and reproductive systems were highlighted in ancient texts. It was combined with shunthee (dried ginger) and black pepper in the famous and popular formulation: ‘Trikatu’. References to Pippali (Piper longum) can also be found in Sanskrit poetry dated around 1000 to 500 BC due to its rampant domestic use. [3]


In the 6th century BC Pippali (Piper longum) caught attention of Hippocrates who used it as a medicine and not as a spice in his medical practice. Since then Pippali (Piper longum) was in vogue in Greece. The Romans started using Pippali (Piper longum) as spice. Eventually Pippali (Piper longum) made its way into spice trade through the Greeks and the Romans where it became one of the most valuable of Indian exports. 

Well! The history of Pippali (Piper longum) is often misunderstood and interlinked with other peppers though Theophrastus distinguished the two in his work of botany. Pliny erroneously believed dried black pepper and Pippali (Piper longum) came from the same plant. Pippali (Piper longum) is still traded alongside black pepper; both being called piper and mistakenly thought to be from the same plant throughout Europe. Additionally, Pippali (Piper longum) has been confused with a long Spanish chili pimento and with other spices of long pepper variety such as Piper retrofractum, native to Java Island. Today Pippali (Piper longum) is a rarity in general commerce. [4], [5]

The fruits of Pippali (Piper longum) as drug appear to be derived from two or more species. Indian Long Pepper is Piper longum Linn or Piper prepuloides, while the Indonesian or Java Long Pepper imported from Malaysia is Piper retrofractum. Some other relevant species include Piper sylvaticum Roxb.

In Raja Nighantu four types are described: (1) Pippali proper, Piper longum Linn found in Magadha, North East India etc. (2) Gaja Pippali, Piper chaba Hunter found in Bengal, Assam. It is consider as fruit of Chavika plant. (3) Simhali, Piper retrofractum Vahl. It is imported from Sri Lanka, Singapore (4) Vana Pippali, Piper sylvaticum Roxb or Piple peepuloides found in forests of Bengal, Assam. [6]

In the current crude drug market two varieties of Pippali (Piper longum) are available: Badi pippali (Large pippali) and Chhotee pippali (small pippali).Though both have similar medicinal properties Chhotee variety suppresses acute and sub acute inflammation while Badi variety suppresses only acute inflammation. Hence for therapeutic use Chhotee pippali is preferred. Because of its anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator property   Pippali (Piper longum) is one of the most important drug used in the treatment of Tamaka shwaasa (status asthmaticus). [7]

The word pepper itself is derived from the word pippali. The pippali plant is a native of India. The name pippali means ‘to drink and digest’ revealing one of its main benefits: Increasing the digestion and burning toxins. The word bell pepper, referring to completely different plants in the capsicum family, is of the same etymology. [8], [9]

Pippali (Piper longum) forms an important constituent of 324 Ayurvedic formulations described in various texts. Warning has also been given in Ayurvedic texts not to use these formulations for a longer duration. 

In Ayurvedic system, the management of diseases includes both Shamana (pacification, suppression) and Shodhana (expulsion) procedures. They are covered under the title ‘Bheshaja’. According to Ayurveda every ‘Dravya’ (substance) can be used as ‘Bheshaja’ (medicine). On the other hand some ‘Dravyas’ might cause ‘Dhatupradooshana’ (vitiation of body systems). They are called ‘Kopana Dravyas’ or ‘Abheshaja’ (non-medicinal substances). The term ‘Abheshaja’ is used to describe such vitiating ‘Dravyas’. Ayurvedic texts have condemned the long term use of Pippali (Piper longum). However Charaka has described Pippali (Piper longum) as ‘Rasaayana’. The word ‘Abheshaja’ appears in ‘Charaka Samhita Brihat-trayee’ text. None of the ‘Laghu-trayee’ texts mention this word. Hence based on the ‘Charaka Samhita Brihat-trayee’ text, many practitioners used Pippali (Piper longum) for a long term use. They observed adverse effects. Thereafter the concept of Pippali (Piper longum) as an ‘Abheshaja’ came in to being. Chakrapaani a commentator of Charaka Samhita explains that ‘Abheshaja’ is responsible for the diseases produced in the body. [10]

To resolve this issue I would say, when used judiciously and for a short time, Pippali (Piper longum) becomes ‘Bheshaja’, if used unscrupulously and for a long time Pippali (Piper longum) becomes ‘Abheshaja’.

Other Names     
  
Taxonomic Name: Piper longum Linn

Sanskrit: Pippalimoola, Piplamul, Pippali-Jataa, Shadgranthi, Granthika, Maagadhee-moola, Kanaamoola, Krishnaamoola,
Assamese: Pippalee,
Bengali: Pipulmul, Pipul
English: Long pepper, Indian Long Pepper roots, Piper root
French: Poivre long
German: Bengalischer Pfeffer, Jaborandi Pfeffer, Langer Pfeffer
Gujarati: Gantola, Ganthoda, Lindi Pipeeper, Pipali,
Hindi: Piper
Hungarian:  Bengali bors
Italian:  Pepe lungo
Kannada: Hippali, Modikaddi, Tipplee, Modi         
Malayalam: Kattuthippaliver, Tippaliveru
Marathi: Pimpalee, Lendi Pimpalee
Nepalese: Gaj pipla, Sano pipla
Oriya: Pipli, Pippalee
Portuguese: Pimenta longa
Punjabi: Magh, MaghPippali
Swedish: Langpeppar
Telugu: Pippalu
Turkish: Dar biberi
Urdu: Filfil Daraz
Unani: Bekh-Filfil Daraz, Bekh-Daarfilfil, Peepl [11], [12], [13]

Taxonomic Classification

Kingdom: Plantae -Plants
Subkinddom: Tracheobionta- Vascular plants
Superdivision: Spermatophyta-Seed plants
Division: Magnoliphyta-Flowering plants
Class: Magnoliopsida-Dicotyledons
Subclass: Magnoliidae
Clade: Angiosperm
Clade: Magnolides
Order: Piperales
Family: Piperaceae- Pepper family
Genus: Piper L.- Pepper
Species: Piper longum
Plant type: Herb

Pippali (Piper longum) belongs to plant family Piperaceae. Piperaceae is a large family, having more than 10 genera and approximately1500 species. The family belongs to class dicotyledons but due to its unique anatomical features it resembles monocotyledon and at times wrongly described with monocotyledon plants. Family piper occurs throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions. [14], [15]

Geographical Distribution

Pippali (Piper longum) is native of North East India. It is distributed in hotter parts of India from central Himalayas to Assam, Khasi and Mikir hills, lower hills of Bengal, Meghalaya, evergreen forests of Western Ghats of Kerala, Tamilnadu, from Konkan to Travancore and also Car Nicobar Islands.  In Western Ghat forests it grows wild. It is cultivated in North East and many parts of South India. Globally the species is distributed in the Indo-Malesian region and Sri Lanka. Pippali (Piper longum) is also cultivated in Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Malaysia and Singapore. [16], [17], [18]

A number of geographical varieties of Pippali (Piper longum) are available in different agro climatic regions of India; the most popular being Assam, West Bengal and Nepal varieties. The other species: Piper officinarum DC, Chavica officinarum Miquel, Piper pepuloides and Piper chaba Hunter are of therapeutic importance. [19]

Plant morphology
Macroscopic characteristics
Plant


   

Pippali Plant                    Male Plant                     Female Plant  
       
[20], [21]
Pippali (Piper longum) is a slender, aromatic, ascending plant. It is a glabrous, erect, nodose, perennial under-shrub.
Pippali (Piper longum) plants functionally dioecious, having male and female reproductive organs on separate plants. There are no morphologically distinguishing features of the sex of the plants. Both male and female plants remain indistinguishable until the flowering stage when male plants can be identified by their long spikes and female plants by their short spikes. The plants maintain their sexual identity throughout their successive generations. [22], [23]
Roots      

   
Perennial woody roots clasping at nodes which get help to get attached to the host trees. [24], [25], [26]


Stem   




Stems are joined with swollen nodes,  numerous, 60-90 cm long and 5 mm thick, ascending or prostrate (not climbing), thick, erect, much branched, stout, cylindrical, thickened above nodes, finely pubescent; outer surface yellowish, branches slender often creeping or trailing and rooting below or rarely scandent (having a climbing habit), a few meters in height [27], [28], [29]

Leaves



Leaves are simple, alternate, numerous, 3.7 to 8.7 cm long, upper ones oblong-oval, cordate at base, lower ones broadly ovate or very cordate with broad rounded lobes at base. All leaves subacute, entire, glabrous, thin, bullate (covered with rounded blister like swellings) with reticulate venatation sunk above and raised beneath, young leaves having 5 veins, dark green and shining above pale and dull beneath; petioles of upper leaves very short or none (sessile), petioles of lower leaves 2.5 to 7.5 cm long, stout, Stipules about 1.2 cm long, membranous, lanceolate, obtuse, enclosing the bud but soon falling off; apex acute to acuminate; margin entire. [30], [31]    

Flowers



The plant flowers throughout the year. Flowers naked, unisexual, dioecious, sessile in axils of fleshy bracts supported by two lateral bracts arranged in solitary, pedunculate spikes, male spikes longer than female spikes, 2.5 to 7.5 cm long, slender, bracts narrow, dehiscent and non-productive; female spikes 1.2 to 2.5 cm long arising singly from leaf axil are cylindrical, short and stout, bracts circular, flat, peltate, perianth absent, stamens 2, anther 2 celled. [32]  

Inflorescence




Inflorescence is spike, with unisexual, small, achlamydeous densely packed flowers forming very close clusters of small grayish green or darker grey berries. Female spikes with short thick stalk varying from 1.5 to 2.5 cm in length and 0.5 to 0.7 cm in thickness. [33], [34]

Ovary
Ovary superior, unilocular with a solitary erect ovule, stigmas 3-4, short, spreading, persistent [35]

Fruits



Fruits are berry spikes, very small, ovoid or cylindrical, male larger and slender, greenish yellow, glabrous, fleshy, red when ripened and become black when dried, 2.5 to 7.5 cms long; female spikes 1.2 to 2 cms long, erect, yellow [36], [37]

Seeds

  

[38]

Microscopic structure              
(A) Fruits:
The fruits are arranged in circle on a central axis, each having an outer epidermal layer of irregular cells filled with deep brown content and covered externally with a thick cuticle; mesocarp consists of larger cells, usually collapsed, irregular in shape and thin-walled; a number of stone cells in singles or in groups present; endocarp and seed coat fused to form a deep zone, outer layer of this zone composed of thin-walled cells and colourless, inner layer composed of tangentially elongated 105 cells, having reddish brown content; most of endocarp and seed coat fused to form a deep zone with hyaline content in the outer layers and orange red pigment, wavy in outline filled with starch grains, round to oval measuring 3-8 μ in diameter. 

(A)Powder of Fruits

Powder is deep moss green in colour, with aromatic odour, pungent taste producing numbness on the tongue; shows fragments of thin-walled parenchyma cells, oval to elongated stone cells; plenty of endosperm cells of various sizes and shapes; a few fragments of thick walled lignified cells in different sizes and shapes of stone cells with wide lumen; a few fragments of pointed unicellular or multicellular trichome; a few fragments of perisperm embedded with aleurone grains and oil globules round to oval in shape; a few yellowish brown content cells; numerous simple, oval to rounded starch grains measuring 3-8 μ in diameter.  [39], [40], [41]

Stem

The transverse section of stem shows epidermis composed of thick-walled cells measuring 15.12 to 26.46 X 7. 56 to 26.46 (Units not mentioned in the reference searched). The cork is composed of three layers of cells measuring 11.34 to 45.36 in diameter (Units not mentioned in the reference searched). The cortex to collenchyma is up to 15 layers broad and shows conspicuous large intercellular spaces and abundance of starch granuals. The cells occasionally divided by secondary wall formation and measure 11.34 to 238.9 in diameter (Units not mentioned in the reference searched). Cells translucent or brown with usually oily or resinous contents are often included in the cortex. The starch grains are simple or compound with up to 30 components. The individual grains are usually with central hilum and measures up to 15.12 in diameter (Units not mentioned in the reference searched). Stone cells are occasionally present in the cortex and measure 258.91 in length and 147.42 in breadth. (Units not mentioned in the reference searched). The xylem groups of peripheral vascular bundles are separated from one another by broad medullary rays up to 40 cells. The medullary ray cells occasionally include oily or resinous contents and measure up to 75.80X64.26 (units not mentioned in the reference searched). The phloem is capped in fibers. The isolated fibers are short or long, broad or narrow, with pointed or blunt ends and show occasionally denticulated margins. The vesicles are up to 79.38 in diameter (units not mentioned in the reference searched). The sclerenchyma of peripheral vascular bundles is more or less continuous and is up to five layers thick. The isolated fibers are elongated with pointed ends and are occasionally 1 to 5 septate and measure 350.46 in length and 11.34 to 37.80 in breadth. (Units not mentioned in the reference searched). The structure of medullary vascular bundles resemble that of Monocotyledons. The xylem is arranged in V shaped groups. Sometimes a lysigenous cavity occupies the phloem. The pith parenchyma cells are more or less isodiametric. Medullary vascular bundles are full of starch grains. The stone cells measure up to 307.38 in length 109.62 (Units not mentioned in the reference searched). [42], [43]

Microscopic Structure of Root
The transverse section of root shows outer cork, middle cortex and central stealar region. The transverse section is almost circular with regular outline. The outermost tissue, cork appears as a narrow strip slightly brown in colour. It consists of 3 to 5 rows of thin-walled and rectangular to slightly elongated cells. The phallogen is not evident in many specimens. The cortex within is fairly wide. The cortical cells are large in size, thin walled and rounded to oblong with large intercellular space. The cell walls of peripheral rows are slightly thickened but not lignified. Most of the cells are heavily loaded with spherical or oval shaped, compound starch grains. Many secretory cells filled with yellow large globules are scattered in cortex.
Centre pith of the root is occupied by 4-6 wedge shaped radiating strips of vascular tissue called stealar region having their wider ends towards periphery. The cells comprising the pith are polygonal, thin-walled and full of starch grains. Outside the pith, evenly spaced six groups of primary xylem bundles are present. In each vascular strip the xylem is composed by xylem vessels and xylem parenchyma surrounded by woody fibers. Wider end of xylem is crowned with hemispherical strip of phloem. These xylem vessels are arranged together in 3-4 radial rows. Few thick-walled xylem parenchyma cells are there with wood fibers. A cambium-strip consists of one or two rows of narrow, thin-walled rectangular cells between xylem and phloem. The phloem is composed of many sieve tubes with their companion cells that can be distinctly made out towards the inner region of phloem and phloem parenchyma cells. The cells on the outer side are slightly compressed and tangentially elongated. One or two groups of stone cells are seen at the peripheral region of phloem. The outer border of phloem is limited by a row of pericyclic cells found just inside the endodermis. Medullary rays are four to six, broad, wedge-shaped with wider ends at the periphery, alternating with radiating bands of vascular tissue. Each ray is having ten to fifteen cells extending from pith to endodermis. The ray cells are thin-walled, cubical, slightly elongated, arranged in regular rows. Most of the cells are heavily loaded with starch grains similar to those present in cortex. Some cells contain minute calcium oxalate crystals. Few cells have oil globules. In some specimens narrow strips of inner fascicular cambial cells connecting the fascicular cambia             are found in the vascular strip. Large quantities of compound starch grains are specific to pippali (Piper longum Linn.)  [44]            
Powder microscopy of Root
In specimens studied root powder showed cork in surface view, parenchyma cells with simple and compound starch grains, prismatic and rod shaped calcium oxalate crystals, annual vessels having pitted borders, fragments of lignified fibers and sclerides distributed throughout powder. [45]

Table 1: Measurements of isolated lignified elements of
Piper longumLinn. Root (Measurements in micrometers)


       Elements   
        Length
           Width  
        Fibers  
        589.90                              
           20.82
        Vessels  
         416.40                     
           48.58       

Table 2: Micrometric measurements of Piper longumLinn. Root (Measurements in micrometers)

Sr. No.                             Characters                      Measurements
1.                                  Compound starch grains              0.47 X 0.43
2.                                 Simple starch grains                     0.3
3.                                 Pitted vessels                                 2.33 X 0.53
4.                                 Annular vessels                              2 X 0.6
5.                                 Rod shaped crystals                       0.1 X 0.6
6.                                 Prismatic crystal                            0.7 X 0.5
7.                                 Cork cells                                        0.4 X 0.5    [46]
     
 Table 3: Histochemical analysis of powder of Piper longum Root
Reagent                                Test for           Color change   Result                
Iodine                                    Starch                   Blue                 Present       
Ferric chloride solution       Tannin                   Black              Present                
Sudan III                                Oil                        Reddish           Present       
Phloroglucinol+HCl             Lignin                   Pink                Present       
Phloroglucinol+HCl          Calcium oxalate  Dissolve              Present                
                                                     Crystals
[47]

Parts used

Mainly Fruit, sometimes Stem, Leaves and root

Phytochemistry

The plant contains many pharmacologically active phytochemicals.

Alkaloids and amides:
The fruit contains alkaloids and related compounds such as: piperine, methyl piperine, pipernonaline, piperettine,  asarinine, pellitorine, piperundecalidine, piperlongumine, piperlonguminine, retrofractamide-A, pergumidiene, brachystamide-B, a dimer of desmethoxypiplartine, N-isobytyldecadienamide, brachyamide-A, brachystine, pipercide, piperderidine, longamide, dehydropipernonaline, piperidine and tetrahydro piperine.

Newly identified phytochemical constituents are:
1-(3, 4-methylenedioxyphenyl) 1E-tetradecene,
3-(3, 4-methylenedioxophenyl) propenal, piperoic acid, 3, 4-dihydroxy-biabola-1, 10-diene, eudesm-4(15)-ene-1beta, 6-alpha-diol, 6-beta-diol, 7-epi-eudesm-4(15)-ene-1beta, guineesine and 2E, 4E-dienamide, (2E, 4E, 8E)-nisobutylhenicosa-2, 4, 8-trienamide  [48]     

Glycosides
Cardiac glycosides

Flavonoids
Quercetin 3.27mg in root

Tannin

Sterols

Beta sitosterol and dihydrostigmasterol

Phenol

Lignans

The main lignans isolated from the fruits are: sesamin, pulviatilol and fargesin

Lignins

Pluriatilol, fargosin, sesamine, asarinine, guineensine and pipericide

Esters

The esters are: tridecyl-dihydro-pcoumarate, icosanyl-(E)-p-coumarate and Z- 12 octandecenoic-glycerol-monoester.

Essential oils

The essential oil isolated from fruit is a complex mixture. Its three major components are caryophyllene, pentadecane and bisaboline. Others are: thujine, terpenoline, zingiberine, p-cymene, p-methoxy acetophenone and dihydrocarveol.  

Aristolactams

Aristolactum A II, piperlactum A and B and cepharanone B

Dioxoaporphines
Cepharadione A and B, norcepharadione B, piperadione and its 6-demethyl derivative.

Organic acids
The organic acids are: Palmitic acid and tetrahydropipericacid. Two phenyl propionic acid derivatives

Saponins

Starch

Carbohydrate

Protein
Aminoacids dehydropipernonalne and tetrahydropiperine, L-tyrosine, L-cysteine hydrochloride

Vitamins

The vitamins isolated from Pippali (Piper longum) are Vitamin A, C, and E

Minerals

Calcium, Magnesium, Selenium

Recently thymoquinol and 6-hydroxydopamine were also isolated

Table 4: Analysis of Phytochemicals

Solvent:         Petroleum ether       Acetone                    Ethanol
Part:                 L   F   S   R                 L   F   S   R                L   F   S   R      

Alkaloid              -    +   +   -                  +   +    +   +              +   +    +   +
Flavonoid            -    -    -    -                   -     -     -   -               -     -     -    -    
Saponin              +   -    +   -                  +    -    +    -              +    -    +    +          
Glycoside            -    -    -    -                  +     -    -    -               +   -     -     -    
Tanins                +   +   +   -                  +    +   +    -              +   +   +     +
Terpinoids          -   +    -    -                 +    +    -     +             +   +   -      +
Resins                -     -    -     -                 +    +    +   +              +    +  +    +
Steroids              -    -    -     -                 -     -     +    -              -     -   +     +
Phenols              +   +   -     -                 +    +    +   +             +    +  +     +
Cardiac
Glycosides          -   +   +    -                 -     +    +   +              +    +    +  +
Triterpinoids      -    -    -    -                 +      -    +   +            +    +    +   +

L= Leaf,   F= Fruit,   S= Stem,   R= Root

Table 5: Composition of primary metabolites: Values in mg/g of fresh part of the plant

Serial Number
Part of the Plant
Protein
Amino acid
Carbohydrates
      1
Leaf
11.47+/- 0.87
8.7 +/- 0.81
2.5+/- 0.21
      2
Fruit
13.47+/-0.77
8.2 +/- 0.55
2.75+/- 0.72
      3
Stem
11.56 +/-0.56
7.01 +/-0.27
2.79 +/-0.11
      4         
Root
14.72+/-0.22
7.3 +/-0.21
2.6 +/- 0.27

[49], [50], [51], [52]

Identity, Purity and Strength   

Foreign matter:                              Not more than 2 percent
Total Ash:                                         Not more than 7 percent                      
Acid-insoluble ash:                       Not more than 0.5 percent

Alcohol-soluble extractive:        Not less than 5 percent

Water-soluble extractive:          Not less than 7 percent       [53]
   
Quantitative Standards

Here are the physicochemical parameters of Pippali (Piper longum) Linn fruits accepted worldwide.
Total Ash:                                              4.88 percent
Acid insoluble Ash:                            0.09 percent
Water soluble Extractive:                9.92 percent
Alcohol soluble Extractive:             17.00 percent      
Loss on drying:                                    10.88 percent
Foreign Matter:                                   0 percent
pH:                                                           5.0                       [54]

Thin Layer Chromatographic (TLC) study
T. L. C. of alcoholic extract on silica gel ‘G’ plate using Toluene: Ethyl acetate (90:10) as mobile phase.
Under Ultra Violate (366nm) six fluorescent zones are visible at Rf. 0.15, 0.26, 0.34, 0.39, 0. 50 and 0.80.
On exposure to iodine vapour seven spots appear at Rf. 0.04, 0.15, 0.26, 0.34, 0.39, 0. 50 and 0.93 (at yellow)
On spraying with Vanillin-Sulphuric acid reagent and heating the plate at 1050 C for ten minutes five spots appear at Rf. 0.04, 0.022, 0.35, 0.43 and 0.82.
On spraying with Dragendroff reagent three spots appear at Rf. 0.15, 0.26. 0.34 (all orange) [55]

Genetic Identity
RAPD/ SCAR/ PCR- Identity
Pippali (Piper longum Linn.) is a dioecious plant; having male and female reproductive organs on separate plants.
By using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique (RAPD) the difference between male and female Pippali (Piper longum Linn.) plants was determined. [56]
For more accurate identity, some researchers convert RAPD markers to sequence characterized amplified region SCAR markers based on their DNA sequence, which could be detected through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with longer sequence-specific primers. [56]

Chromosomal Identity

The chromosomal or molecular factors determining the sexual phenotype of Pippali (Piper longum L.) are not known. Karyomorphological observations of four genera of Piperaceae show the same karyomorphological characteristics. The basic chromosome number of Piperaceae is presumed to be x=11.  [57]

HPTLC Analysis

HPTLC analysis was used to evaluate various phytoconstituents in Pippali (Piper longum L.). The samples of fruit material were subjected to phytochemical tests for alkaloids, glycosides, phenols and tannins to confirm literature reports of phytonutrients of the plant. The researchers were able to estimate the quantity of piperine in fruit of the plant. [58] 

Another group used mathanolic extract of root of Pippali (Piper longum L). The results obtained from qualitative evaluation of HPTLC images were helpful in identification, standardization and quality control of piperine in pipermula.  This will ensure therapeutic efficacy of piperine in pipermula. [59]  

Properties and Pharmacology      
  
Ayurvedic Ganas

Sushruta Samhitaa: Pipplyaadi

Ashtaanga Sangraha: Pippalyaadi

Bhaawaprakaasha: Haieetakyaadi

Dhanwantari Nighantu: Shatapushpaadi

Raaja Nighantu: Pippalyaadi

Kaiyadeva Nighantu: Oshadhee

Maadhava Dravyaguna: Vividha-oushadhee

Hridayaadeepikaa Nighantu: Chatushpada

Priya Nighantu: Pippalyaadi                                    [60]

Ayurvedic Varga

Charaka Varga: Kaasahara (Antitussive), Hikka-Nigraha (Anti-Hiccup), Shirovirechana (Drainage of sinuses), Vamana (Emetic), Deepaneeya (Appetizer), Shoolaprashamana (Anticolic, Relieves colic) 

Sushruta Varga: Tri-ushana [Three acrid drugs: Shunthee (Zingiber officinale), Marichee (Piper nigrum), Pippali (Piper longum)], Urdhwabhaagahara, Shirovirechana (Drainage of sinuses)  [61]

Ayurvedic properties

Rasa (Taste): Katu (Pungent, Acrid)

Veerya/ Virya (Potency, Potent Energy): Ushna (Hot, Heating)

Vipaka (Post Digestive Effect): Katu (Pungent, Acrid)

Actions on Srotasas (Actions on systems): Digestive, Reproductive and Respiratory systems [62]

Ayurvedic Guna/Karma (Ayurvedic Properties and Action)

Ushna: Hot, Heating

Teekshna: Penetrative

Katu: Pungent, Acrid

Rooksha: Dry, Exerting drying effect

Laghu: Light

Waata-hara: Anti-flatulent, Nervine tonic, Acts against motility disorders

Waata-anulomana: Prokinetic, Antiflatulent,

Kaphahara: Expectorant, Allays excessive phlegm, Reduces excessive secretions, Pacifies Kapha

Kaasahara: Anti-tussive

Shwasahara: Relieves bronchial asthma

Kshayahara: Cures Tuberculosis

Hikkaa-Nigrahana: Controlling Hiccup

Deepana: Appetizer, Improves appetite, Promotes appetite

Paachana: Digestive, Digestant, Improves digestion

Ruchikaraka: Improves taste

Pittavardhaka: Increases gastric secretion, Causes hyperacidity, Increases pitta

Yakritottejaka: Hepatostimulant

Pleehaawridhi-hara: Reduces Splenomegaly

Krimighna: Anthelmintic

Shoola-Prashamana: Relieves colic

Hikkaa-Nigrahana: Controlling Hiccup

Mridu-Virechana: Mild Laxative

Medhya: Beneficial for intelligence, Improves Memory, 

Shirivirechana: Drains sinuses 

Truptighna/ Triptighna: Treats Hypothyroidism (See note below)

Mootrala: Diuretic

Jwaraghna: Antipyretic

Wishamajwara Pratibandhaka: Prevents Typhoid

Kushthaghna: Cures skin diseases like leprosy

Vrishya: Aphrodisiac

Balya: Builds Muscles, Builds up Energy in Body

Rasaayana: Adaptogen

Rogaghna Actions

Pippali (Piper longum Linn) is useful for the treatment of:

Kaasa (cough), Shwaasa (dyspnoea, bronchial asthma), Hicca (hiccup), Agnimaandya (Cures loss of appetite), Ajeerna (Cures indigestion), Vibandha (relieves constipation), Kshaya (emaciation, wasting), Raajayakshma (tuberculosis), Rajorodha (amenorrhoea), Kushtha (leprosy and other skin diseases), Jwara (PUO, pyrexia of unknown origin) [63]

[NOTE: In Sanskrit literature the word ‘TRUPTI’/ ‘TRIPTI’ means ‘satiety’. However in ‘Roga-Vigyan’; Ayurvedic clinical medicine, it means ‘Hypothyroidism’. Therefore the term ‘TRUPTIGHNA’/ ‘TRIPTIGHNA’ means a drug that relieves or treats ‘Hypothyroidism’.

In Charaka Samhitaa, Aacharya Charaka described 50 Mahaakashayas; polyherbal decoction. They are divided into 10 subgroups, each with 10 herbs. ‘TRUPTIGHNA MAHAAKASHAYA’/ ‘TRIPTIGHNA MAHAAKASHAYA’ is one of them. The formulation contains 10 drugs: 1. Naagara=Shunthee (Zingiber officinale), 2. Chavya (Piper chaba Hunter, Piper retrofractum Vahl), 3. Chitraka (Plumbago zeylanica), 4. Widanga (Embelia ribes), 5. Murwaa (Marsdenia tenacissima), 6. Guduchee (Tinospora cordifolia), 7. Wachaa (Acorus calamus), 8. Mustaa (Cyperus rotundus), 9.  Pippali (Piper longum), 10. Patola (Luffa acutangula L. Roxb.) According to Ayurveda, Trupti/ Tripti is a kapha naanaatmaja wyadhi. Drug used to diminish such condition is known as ‘Truptighna-oshadhee/ ‘Triptighna-oshadhee’]    [64]

References: 

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_pepper.   
[2] Chowkhamba Orientalia, 2002; Sootrasthana, 9th edition, Varanasi
[3] Charaka Samhita with Ayurveda Deepika commentary by Chakrapanidatta; Sootrasthana, 2nd edition Varanasi: Chowkhamba Krishnadas Academi; 2006. 
[4] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_pepper.   
[5] https://www.baniyanbotanicals.com/info/blog-the-baniyan-insit/details/getting-to-know-your-herbal-allies-pippali-piper-longum            
[7] Mamta Kumari et al, Anti-inflammatory activity of two varieties of Pippali (Piper longum Linn.), Ayu. 2012 Apr-Jun; 33(2): 307-310
[8] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Long_pepper.   
[9] https://www.baniyanbotanicals.com/info/blog-the-baniyan-insit/details/getting-to-know-your-herbal-allies-pippali-piper-longum                   
[10] https://www.baniyanbotanicals.com/info/blog-the-baniyan-insit/details/getting-to-know-your-herbal-allies-pippali-piper-longum             
[11] Suresh Kumar et al, Overview for Various Aspects of the Health Benefits of Piper longum Linn Fruit, Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2011, Pages 134-140
[12] https: //www.bimbima.com/herbs/pippali-mula-piper-longum-roots-uses-properties-and-more/37/
[13] http://www.ayurveda.hu/api/API-Vol-4.pdf
[16] https://www.ayurveda.hu/api/API-Vol-4.pdf
[18] http://envis.frlht.org/plantdetails/ddda8fb6d80ccc1c84f66dbce99a78e6/8foao142a605bf555deef336c5bc23b
[19] Krutika Joshi et al, Pharmacognostic evaluation of Pippali_ Mula _Root _of_Piper_longum_Linn_WSR_to Micromeric and Isolation Techniques, Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci., Vol. 3, No.6 (2014) Pages 162-170  
[21] google images
[22] https://www.bimbima.com/herbs/pippali-mula-piper-longum-roots-uses-properties-and-more/27/                                                                                                                                                     
[23] P. Manoj et al, Development of sex-associated SCAR markers in Piper longum L.; PGR Newsletter, Issue No. 141, page 44-50 
[26] Krutika Joshi et al, Pharmacognostic evaluation of Pippali_ Mula _Root _of_Piper_longum_Linn_WSR_to Micromeric and Isolation Techniques, Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci., Vol. 3, No.6(2014) Pages 162-170  
[29] Krutika Joshi et al, Pharmacognostic evaluation of Pippali_ Mula _Root _of_Piper_longum_Linn_WSR_to Micromeric and Isolation Techniques, Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci., Vol. 3, No.6(2014) Pages 162-170  
[34] Krutika Joshi et al, Pharmacognostic evaluation of Pippali_ Mula _Root _of_Piper_longum_Linn_WSR_to Micromeric and Isolation Techniques, Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci., Vol. 3, No.6(2014) Pages 162-170  
[37] Krutika Joshi et al, Pharmacognostic evaluation of Pippali_ Mula _Root _of_Piper_longum_Linn_WSR_to Micromeric and Isolation Techniques, Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci., Vol. 3, No.6(2014) Pages 162-170  
[38] google images
[39] http://www.ayurveda.hu/api/API-Vol-4.pdf
[40] http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/110092/ 11/11_chapter%204.pdf
[41] Krutika Joshi et al, Pharmacognostic evaluation of Pippali_ Mula _Root _of_Piper_longum_Linn_WSR_to Micromeric and Isolation Techniques, Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci., Vol. 3, No.6(2014) Pages 162-170   
[42] B. S. Bisht, Pharmacognosy of Pipermul-The Root and Stem of Piper longum Linn, Planta medica, December 1963
[43] Atal CK and Banga SS, Pharmacognosy of the stem of P. longum, Indian J Pharm, 24(2), 1962, 29-30
[44] Krutika Joshi et al, Pharmacognostic evaluation of pippalimula (Root of Piper longum Linn) W. S. R. to Micrometric and isolation techniques, Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci.,Vol. 3,       No. 6 (2014) Pages 162-170
[45] Krutika Joshi et al, Pharmacognostic evaluation of pippalimula (Root of Piper longum Linn) W. S. R. to Micrometric and isolation techniques, Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci.,Vol. 3,       No. 6 (2014) Pages 162-170
[46] Krutika Joshi et al, Pharmacognostic evaluation of pippalimula (Root of Piper longum Linn) W. S. R. to Micrometric and isolation techniques, Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci.,Vol. 3,       No. 6 (2014) Pages 162-170
[47] Krutika Joshi et al, Pharmacognostic evaluation of pippalimula (Root of Piper longum Linn) W. S. R. to Micrometric and isolation techniques, Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sci.,Vol. 3,       No. 6 (2014) Pages 162-170
[48] Dhanalaxmi D et al, Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Piper longum- A Systematic review, World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Volume 6, Issue 1, 381-398 
[49] Sindhu S et al Preliminary phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Piper longum L. Mintage journal of Pharmaceutical & Medical Sciences/21-23; accepted 16-02-2013
[50] Dhanalaxmi D et al, Phytochemistry and pharmacology of Piper longum- A Systematic review, World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Volume 6, Issue 1, 381-398 
[51] Chauhan Khushbu et al, Phytochemical and Therapeutic potential of Piper longum Linn: A Review; IJRAP 2011, 2(1): 157-161

[53] http://www.ayurveda.hu./api/API-Vol-4.pdf   
[54] Amrita Pincha et al, Detailed Pharmacognostic, Physicochemical and Phytochemical Study of Pippali Fruit (Piper longum Linn) Available in Assam, 2017 IJAPC Int J Ayu Pharm Chem 2017 Vol. 6, Issue 3
[55]  http://www.ayurveda.hu/api/API-Vol-4.pdf
[56] N. S. Banerjee et al, Male-sex-associated RAPD markers in Piper longum L, Current Science, Vol. 77 No. 5, pp. 693-695;                  10 Sep 1999    
[56] P. Manoj et al, Development of sex-associated SCAR markers in Piper longum L; PGR Newsletter, Issue No. 141, page 44-50

[57] Hiroshi Okada, Karyomorphology and relationships in some genera of Saururaceae and Piperaceae, The botanical magazine= Shokubutsu-gaku-zasshi, September 1986, Vol 99, Issue 3, 289-299

[58] P. D. Hamrapurkar, Quantitative Estimation of Piperine in Piper nigrum and Piper longum Using High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography, Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 01 (03); 2011: 117-120

[59] Krutika Joshi et al, Physicochemical and HPTLC analysis of Pipermula (Root of Piper longum Linn.), Indian J Pharm. Biol. Res. 2016; 4(1): 1-6

[63] http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/110092/10/ 10_chapter%203.pdf

[64] Mishra Nidhi, Mishra Rajesh Chandra, Soni Pradeep, To explore the role of Truptighna Mahakashaya in management of Hypothyroidism, International Journal of Applied Ayurved Research ISSN: 2347-6362; IJAAR Volume III Issue III Jul-Aug 2017


    

Comments

Unknown said…
Very nice. Great detailed work.

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